'increment': 1, { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_btmslot' }}]}, { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_MidArticle' }}, It can even be argued that sectarian tone within the Islamic Republic of Iran has grown since then. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162050', zoneId: '776358', position: 'atf' }}, The invasion of Ireland by English parliamentarian forces under Oliver Cromwell in 1659 was notoriously brutal and witnessed the widespread ethnic cleansing of the native Irish. The foundations of sectarianism in Lebanon date back to the mid-19th century during Ottoman rule. Sectarian means resulting from the differences between different religions. { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '346693' }}, This resulted in "a system of local administration and politics explicitly defined on a narrow communal basis". [59] Part of the animosity between the Alawites and the Sunni Islamists of the Muslim Brothers is due to the secularization of Syria, which the later holds the Alawites in power to be responsible for. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195464', size: [160, 600] }}, [4] As Nader Hashemi asserts: The U.S. invasion of Iraq; the support of various Western governments for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which commits war crime upon war crime in Yemen and disseminates poisonous sectarian propaganda throughout the Sunni world; not to mention longstanding Western support for highly repressive dictators who manipulate sectarian fears and anxieties as a strategy of control and regime survival – the "ancient hatreds" narrative [between Sunnis and Shi’as] washes this all away and lays the blame for the regionʹs problems on supposedly trans-historical religious passions. The largest concentration of Syrian refugees, close to one million people as of April 2014, can be found in Lebanon and has resulted in a population increase by about a quarter. [81], Conflicting geopolitical interests surfaced during the North Yemen Civil War (1962-1970). to spend all your time and energy doing or feeling something, Pompous and patronizing (Describing character, part 5), Clear explanations of natural written and spoken English. Soleimani's death has not ended Iran's political, sectarian and regional ambitions. Sometimes a group that is under economic or political pressure will kill or attack members of another group which it regards as responsible for its own decline. { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_HDX' }}, [55], During the period 1961–1980, Syria was not necessarily exclusively ruled by the Alawite sect, but due to efforts of the Sunni Muslim extremist opponents of the Ba’th regime in Syria, it was perceived as such. Synonyms: bigotry, dogmatism, illiberalism… Antonyms: broad-mindedness, liberalism, liberality… You can complete the definition of sectarianism given by the English Cobuild dictionary with other English dictionaries : Wikipedia, Lexilogos, Oxford, Cambridge, Chambers Harrap, Wordreference, Collins Lexibase dictionaries, … Middle East sectarianism explained: the narcissism of small differences, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sectarianism&oldid=991898925, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2010, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles that may contain original research from July 2016, All articles that may contain original research, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2018, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 11:33. By mentioning these two cities, Khomeini led to the creation of Shia expansionism. For example, the substantial Protestant population of France (the Huguenots) was expelled from the kingdom in the 1680s following the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. The establishment of a Shiite government during the Safavid rule resulted in the increase of power within this religious sect. type: "cookie", sectarianism - WordReference English dictionary, questions, discussion and forums. googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_c", ["people_society_religion", "law_government_military"]); Probably the best-known example in recent times were The Troubles. Although sectarian identities played a role in the unfolding of events of the Syrian Civil War, the importance of tribal and kinship relationships should not be underestimated, as they can be used to obtain and maintain power and loyalty. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776130', position: 'btf' }}, noun. { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_btmslot' }}, Bahout argues that the Syrian turmoil is intensifying Sunni-Shia tensions on two levels: “symbolic and identity-based on the one hand, and geopolitical or interest based, on the other hand." name: "pubCommonId", Translation for 'sectarian' in the free English-Swedish dictionary and many other Swedish translations. }); [2] Sectarianization is an active, multi-layered process and a set of practices, not a static condition, that is set in motion and shaped by political actors pursuing political goals. ga('set', 'dimension3', "default"); [53] This focus on minorities was new and part of a divide-and-rule strategy of the French, which enhanced and politicized differences between sects. { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_btmslot' }}, The Ottoman reform movement launched in 1839 and the growing European presence in the Middle East subsequently led to the disintegration of the traditional Lebanese social order based on a hierarchy that bridged religious differences. [95][99][101] Violent non-state actors Al-Qaeda, Ansar al-Sharia and Daesh, particularly active in southern cities like Mukalla, fuel sectarian tendencies with their animosity towards Yemen's Isma'ilis, Zaydis, and others. 'cap': true iasLog("exclusion label : lcp"); Sectarianism definition, sectarian spirit or tendencies; excessive devotion to a particular sect, especially in religion. { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_SR' }}, { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '346688' }}, [97][95][99] Houthis also attacked the Salafist Bin Salman Mosque and threatened various Teimanim families. [126] As such, the Lebanese encounter with European colonization altered the meaning of religion in the multi-confessional society because it "emphasized sectarian identity as the only viable marker of political reform and the only authentic basis for political claims. The word in the example sentence does not match the entry word. For the violent conflict between Buddhist sects in Japan, see Japanese Buddhism. Rather, historians have argued that the origins of sectarianism lay at the "intersection of nineteenth-century European colonialism and Ottoman modernization". The Ba’ath regime was being dominated by the Alawite community, as well as were other institutions of power. "[3] This fundamental transformation, or process of sectarianization, led by the French created a new political reality that paved the way for the "mobilization" and "radicalization" of the Shi’a community during the Lebanese civil war.[3][8]. In doing so, General Aoun internationalized the Lebanese crisis by “emphasized the destructive role of the Syrian army in the country”. googletag.cmd = googletag.cmd || []; pid: '94' In most places where Protestantism is the majority or "official" religion, there have been examples of Catholics being persecuted. As of 2015, the majority of the Syrian population consisted of Sunni Muslims, namely two-thirds of the population, which can be found throughout the country. { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_Billboard' }}, The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). }, { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_topslot_728x90' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '555365', size: [160, 600] }}, the spirit or tendencies of sectarians, especially adherence or excessive devotion to a particular sect, especially in religion. ‘the city's traditional sectarian divide’. By naming Jerusalem, Khomeini expressed his desire for liberating Palestine from the hands of what he later often has named "the enemy of Islam." type: "html5", [2] The Ottoman Tanzimat, European colonialism and authoritarianism are key in the process of sectarianization in the Middle East. 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